Animal Species at Risk — Full List

Abbreviations/Symbols used in this list:

FPS  Fully Protected Species designated under the California Fish and Game Code

SE  or  ST  State Endangered  or  State Threatened

FE  or  FT  Federal Endangered  or  Federal Threatened

CSC  California Species of Special Concern

FSC  Federal Species of Special Concern

* A locally common species, but colonies are sensitive to disturbance

** Species is relatively common in adjacent bioregions


Salt marsh wandering shrew  Sorex vagrans halicoetes  (FSC, CSC)

Monterey vagrant shrew  Sorex vagrans paludivagus  

Pallid bat  Antrozous pallidus  (CSC)

Townsend's western big-eared bat  Corynorhinus townsendii t.  (FSC, CSC)

Western red bat  Lasiurus blossevillii  

Fringed myotis  Myotis thysanodes  (FSC)

Long-legged myotis  Myotis volans  (FSC)

Santa Cruz kangaroo rat  Dipodomys venustus venustus  

San Francisco dusky-footed woodrat  Neotoma fuscipes annectens  (FSC, CSC)

Salt-marsh harvest mouse  Reithrodontomys raviventris  (SE, FE, FPS)

Mountain lion  Puma concolor  (CSC)


Western pond turtle  Actinemys (=Emys) marmorata  (CSC)

** Common side-blotched lizard  Uta stansburiana

Coast horned lizard  Phrynosoma blainvillii  (FSC, CSC)

California whiptail lizard  Cnemidophorus tigris mundus

California legless lizard  Aniella pulchra  (CSC)

** San Joaquin coachwhip snake  Masticophis flagellum ruddocki

** California whipsnake (Chaparral whipsnake)  Masticophis lateralis lateralis  

San Francisco garter snake  Thamnophis sirtalis tetretaenia  (SE, FE)

California black-headed snake  Tantilla planiceps 

** Night snake  Hypsiglena torquata 


California tiger salamander  Ambystoma californiense  (CSC, FT)

California giant salamander  Dicamptodon ensatus  (SE, FE)

Santa Cruz long-toed salamander  Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum  (SE, FE)

Santa Cruz black salamander  Aneides flavipunctatus niger  (CSC)

California red-legged frog  Rana aurora draytonii  (FT, CSC)

Foothill yellow-legged frog  Rana boylii  (FSC, CSC, State Candidate for listing as Endangered)

Red-bellied newt  Taricha rivularis  (CSC)


Pacific lamprey  Entosphenus tridentatus  (FSC)

Coho salmon Central Calif. Coast ESU  Oncorhynchus kisutch  (SE, FE)

** Chinook salmon  Oncorhynchus tshawytscha  

Steelhead Central Calif. Coast DPS  Oncorhynchus mykiss  (FT)

Speckled dace  Rhinichthys osculus  

Sacramento perch  Archoplites interruptus  (FSC, CSC, possibly extirpated)

** Tule perch  Hysterocarpus traski

Tidewater goby  Eucyclogobius newberryi  (FE)


Note: Only species that breed in the Bioregion are included in this list; those whose occurrence has always been restricted to the extreme perimeter of their breeding range are not listed.

American bittern  Botaurus lentiginosus  (Rookeries are FSC)

Great egret  Ardea alba  

Snowy egret  Egretta thula  (Rookeries are FSC)

Black-crowned night heron  Nycticorax nycticorax  

Northern harrier  Circus cyaneus  

Golden eagle  Aquila chrysaetos  (FPS)

California clapper rail  Rallus longirostris obsoletus  (SE, FE, at high risk)

Virginia rail  Rallus limicola 

Sora  Porzana carolina 

Western snowy plover  Charadrius nivosus nivosus  (Coastal popFT, at high risk)

Spotted sandpiper  Actitis macularius  (Suitable habitat is naturally limited)

Caspian tern  Hydroprogne caspia  (Possibly extirpated)

Common murre  Uria aalge  (Suitable habitat is limited, at high risk)

Marbled murrelet  Brachyramphus marmoratus  (SE, FT, at high risk)

Burrowing owl  Athene cunicularia  (FSC, CSC, at high risk)

Black swift  Cypseloides niger  (FSC, CSC, possibly extirpated)

Vaux's swift  Chaetura vauxi  (FSC, CSC)

Olive-sided flycatcher  Contopus cooperi  (FSC)

Loggerhead shrike  Lanius ludovicianus  (FSC, CSC, at high risk)

Horned lark  Eremophila alpestris  (At high risk)

Bank swallow  Riparia riparia  (ST, FSC, at high risk)

Purple martin  Progne subis  (CSC, at high risk)

Western bluebird  Sialia mexicana 

Yellow warbler  Dendroica petechia  (CSC)

Yellow-breasted chat  Icteria virens  (CSC, at high risk)

Lark sparrow  Chondestes grammacus  (FSC)

Tricolored blackbird  Agelaius tricolor  (FSC, CSC, at high risk)

New Breeders in Bioregion: Limited Numbers, Future Status Uncertain

Osprey  Pandion haliaetus  (Re-initiation of breeding after long lapse)

Peregrine falcon  Falco peregrinus  (Re-initiation of breeding after long lapse)

Cassin's auklet  Ptychoramphus aleuticus  (Suitable habitat is naturally limited)

Rhinoceros auklet  Cerorhinca monocerata 

Red-breasted sapsucker  Sphyrapicus ruber  (FSC)

Varied thrush  Ixoreus naevius 

Insects and Other Invertebrates

California floater mussel  Anodonta californiensis 

California brackishwater snail  Tryonia imitator

Edgewood blind harvestman  Calicina (=Sitalcina) minor  (FSC)

Edgewood Park micro-blind harvestman  Microcina edgewoodensis  (FSC)

Hom's micro-blind harvestman  Microcina homi  (FSC)

Jung's micro-blind harvestman  Microcina jungi  (FSC)

California linderiella shrimp  Linderiella occidentalis  (FSC)

California freshwater (Tomales) isopod  Caecidotea tomalensis 

Ground cricket  Neonemobius eurynotus 

Zayante banded wing grasshopper  Trimerotropis infantilis  (FE, local: Ben Lomond Sandhills)

Ohlone tiger beetle  Cicindela ohlone  (FE)

Globose dune beetle  Coelus globosus  (FSC)

Ricksecker's water scavenger beetle  Hydrochara rickseckeri 

Leech's Skyline diving beetle  Hydroporus leechi  (FSC)

Mt. Hermon June beetle  Polyphylla barbata  (FE, local: Ben Lomond Sandhills)

San Francisco forktail damselfly  Ischnura gemina 

Opler's longhorn moth  Adela oplerella  (FSC)

Smith's blue butterfly  Euphilotes enoptes smithii  (FE)

Bay checkerspot butterfly  Euphydryas editha bayensis  (FT)

San Bruno elfin butterfly  Incisalia mossii bayensis  (FE)

Mission blue butterfly  Plebejus icarioides missionensis  (FE)

Unsilvered fritillary butterfly  Speyeria adiaste adiaste 

Callippe silverspot butterfly  Speyeria callippe callippe 

Antioch sphecid wasp  Philanthus nasalis  (Local: Ben Lomond Sandhills)

Special Species Aggregations

Monarch butterfly aggregations

Heronries (Great blue, Black-crowned night heron, other)

Seabird colonies (alcids)

Double-crested cormorant roosts

Bat roosts or maternity colonies

Poorly Known Species

Not enough is known about the presence or absence of these species in the Bioregion, or their population size and trend, to determine if they warrant addition to this list.

Western pipistrelle  Pipistrellus hesperus  (Occur in Bioregion?)

Hoary bat  Lasiurus cinereus

Silver-haired bat  Lasionycteris noctivagans

Long-eared myotis  Myotis evotis  (FSC)

Little brown myotis  Myotis lucifugus

Western small-footed myotis  Myotis ciliolabrum  (FSC)

Western mastiff bat  Eumops perotis  (FSC, CSC)

Ringtail  Bassariscus astutus  (FPS)

California mountain kingsnake  Lampropeltis zonata 

Black salamander  Aneides flavipunctatus 

Spotted owl  Strix occidentalis  (Breeding not confirmed, subspp. unknown)

Long-eared owl  Asio otus 

Empire Cave pseudoscorpion  Fissilicreagris (=Microcreagris) imperialis

Dolloff cave spider  Meta dolloff

San Francisco lacewing  Nothochrysa californica  (FSC)

Bumblebee scarab beetle  Licnanthe ursina  (FSC, extinct?)

Coastal dune deerfly  Brennania hera 

Sandhills robberfly  Stenopogon sp. nov.

Sandhills flesh-flies  Senotaenia sp. nov. and Metopia sp. nov.

Santa Cruz rain beetle  Pleocoma conjugens conjugens  (Locally rare?)

Sandhills melittid bee  Hesperapis sp. nov.

Local Taxonomic Experts Consulted in the Preparation of this List

The Bioregional Council would like to thank the following local experts who contributed information that allowed us to prepare this list:

Mammals: Mr. Mark Allaback, Mr. Paul Heady, Mr. Chris Lay, and Dr. William Liddicker

Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fish: Dr. Allan Launer, Mr. Rich Seymour, Dr. Jerry Smith, Dr. Robert Stebbins, and Mr. Mike Westphal. These taxa were reviewed and updated by Dr. Jerry Smith in August 2017.

Birds: Mr. Bill Bousman, Mr. Peter Metropulos, Mr. Randy Morgan, and Mr. David Suddjian

Insects and Other Invertebrates: Dr. Richard Arnold, Dr. Allan Launer, and Mr. Randy Morgan